橡邃簌栝 | 毋豚怆屙桢 | 央邃簋

理囵蹊麇耜铄 耦珥囗桢 祛骓 疣耨爨蝠桠囹 赅 鬣耱睇 耠篦嚅 铗戾麇眄 趔礓囔屙蜞朦睇 怆屙栝, 赅 镳邂疣眄簋 桎遴朦眢 纛痨 钺牝桠眍泐 踵铖, 邈 屐屙. 褥邋蝰 麇痱, 疋铋耱, 钺磬痼骅忄桴  "痤漶蜮". 谚耱屐 桎彘, 钺疣珙 . . 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 镱 耋耱怏 耩邃耱忸 祛溴腓痤忄龛 襦爨 祛溴朦 "踵铗梓羼觇 襦祛铕汔龛珙忄眄钽" 钺耱忄. 蠕遴腩 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 怆弪 铗耋蝰蜮桢 赅觇-腓犷 玎疣礤 玎溧眄 "耔耱屐铉囔帼" 镟疣戾蝠钼. 湾 镳桤磬弪 赅觐-腓犷 "桉牦耨蜮屙眍" 铕汔龛玎鲨, 驽耱觇 镱玷蜩忭 耱痼牝箴 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 骅珥, 桎孱腩汨, 镳噔 (躅 桁妣蝰 忮顸爨 驽耱觇 腩汨麇耜桢 钺疣珥 耱痼牝箴 铗痂鲟龛). 朽玮栩桢 钺耱忄 镱龛爨弪 赅 疱珞朦蜞 溴轳蜮 徨耜铐鬻眍泐 祉铈羼蜮 扈牮铖桦 ( 耦鲨嚯铋 骅珥 桧滂忤漕, 桴 沭箫, 牮箫睇 耦鲨嚯 钺铖蝈 . .). 湾忸珈铈眍耱 镱腠钽 蝾黜钽 铛忄蜞 怦邈 祉铈羼蜮 钺耱忮眄 镳桊钿睇 忡噼祛溴轳蜮栝 爨牮- 扈牮铎桊, 耦汶囫眍 腩汨赍 囗囵蹊珈 铒疣怃噱 钺耥弪 镱腠 铗赅 铗 耦珥囹咫钽 疱泱腓痤忄龛 耱桴栝睇 镳铞羼耦 钺耱忮. 碾 "耧铐蜞眄钽 耦珥囗" 祉铈羼蜮 耱桴栝睇 忡噼祛溴轳蜮栝 羼螯 邃桧耱忮眄 忸珈铈睇 羼蝈耱忮眄 镱漕, 镱龛爨屐 赅 礤镳铊玮铍 襦祛疱泱鲨, 襦祛磬耱疣桠帼 耱桴.

羊桴栝磬 襦祛铕汔龛玎鲨 钺耱忄 镳桤磬弪 疱珞朦蜞蝾 羼蝈耱忮眄铋 忭篁痂耔耱屐眍 襦祛铕汔龛玎鲨 铗眍龛, 桧蝈疱耦 疋钺钿睇 耦珥囹咫 腓黜铖蝈, 桴 沭箫. 锗疣牝屦屙 铗赅 铗 赅觇-腓犷 镳桧箐栩咫 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 桧耱栩篁钼, 磬溴脲眄 怆囫螯 觐祜弪屙鲨彘 镱 疋铄祗 篑祛蝠屙棹 疱泱腓痤忄螯, 箫铕漕麒忄螯 钺耱忮眄簋 骅珥. 诣镨麇 铗赅 铗 驽耱觇 戾蝾漕 疱泱腓痤忄龛 耦鲨嚯铋 骅珥 镳桤磬龛 眍痨 耱桴栝眍, "耥桤" 耜豚潲忄桴, 镱耱眄 篁铟桴, 钺眍怆桴 . . 篦弪铎 爨脲轼桴 桤戾礤龛 耦鲨嚯铋 骅珥, , 忸脲 桧蝈疱襦 腓, 沭箫, 耦钼, 篑蜞眍忤怿桴 漕泐忸疣 戾驿 耦犷  眍痨. 橡邃镱豚汔弪, 黩 徨耜铐鬻眍 麒耠 耔, 溴轳蜮簋 磬 耦鲨嚯簋 耔耱屐 桤眢蝠 桤忭 镳 篑腩忤 疋钺钿眍 镱腠铋 疱嚯桤圉梃 怦艴 桧蝈疱耦, 忡噼祛溴轳蜮栝, 怦艴 镳钽疱耨桠睇 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 忸珈铈眍耱彘, 钺羼镥麒忄弪 漕耱桄屙桢 钺耱忸 邈 麟屙囔 爨犟桁嚯 忸珈铈眍 汔痨铐梃, 疋钺钿 镳铞忮蜞龛.

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .49

帖耠 疋玷 囗囵蹊珈 镳钺脲禧 镱潢 "泐耋溧瘃蜮屙龛麇耜铎" 耦珥囗梃 钺 纛痨 恹耜噻嚯囫 溧忭[1]. 囗囵蹊珈 觐眦 XIX 磬鬣豚 XX 忖. (.. 体黜桕钼, .. 署铒铗觇, 蓦桤 绣觌 漯筱桢) 蜞赕 祛骓 镳铖脲滂螯 铒疱溴脲眄簋 襦祛桎屙蜩翳赅鲨 耦 耱桴栝睇扈 镳铞羼襦扈 镳桊钿 钺耱忮.

朽珉梓睇 忄痂囗螓 戾蝾漕腩汨 囗囵蹊珈 XIXXX 忖. 猁腓 羿牝梓羼觇 磬耱痤屙 磬 镥疱疣犷蜿, 忸耧痤桤忮溴龛 镳桦铈屙桢 翳腩耦翳, 镱腓蜩赍, 镳噔 . . 疣珉梓睇 囫镥牝钼 踵铗梓羼觇 镳铞羼耦 耦耱龛 镳桊钿, 钺耱忮, 耦珥囗梃. "锗铗梓羼赅 戾蝾漕腩汨" 囗囵蹊珈 桁咫 疣珥铑狃噻睇 纛痨 (疱蜩忤珈 耦腓锺桤 . 仳桊礤疣, "耔眚弪梓羼赅 翳腩耦翳" 戾踵龛耱梓羼赅 滂嚯尻蜩赅 .. 橡箐铐, "礤汔蜩忭 滂嚯尻蜩赅" M. . 拎牦龛磬, 耱桴栝眍-爨蝈痂嚯桉蜩麇耜 羼蝈耱忮眄-磬篦磬 翳腩耦翳 .. 署铒铗觇磬, 桧蝮栩桠磬 翳腩耦翳 .. 令痤忸泐, 扈耱梓羼赅 滂嚯尻蜩赅 .. 杨腩眍忤鬣, "桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜栝 囗囵蹊珈" . 藻殄疣徨礓 . .) 镱玮铍豚 祉钽铒豚眍忸 铗钺疣玷螯, 恹疣玷螯 踵铗梓羼觇 祛戾眚 镳桊钿睇 耦鲨嚯 怆屙栝, 镳铞羼耦.

镥痂钿 耦鲨嚯 疱忸膻鲨, 忸轫, 牮箫睇 疱纛痨 忸珥桕噱 疋铄泐 痤溧 篑桦桠帼 疱珙磬眈 "踵铗梓羼觐泐 扈痤忸珑疱龛". 袜疣耱囗棹 耦鲨嚯钽 踵铖 耦铗忮蝰蜮箦 猁耱瘥 痤耱 屐屙蝾 "踵铗梓羼觐泐 耦珥囗" 囗囵蹊珈 钺耱忮眄铎 耦珥囗梃.

蒡囹桤, "泐耋溧瘃蜮屙龛麇耜铄" 耦珥囗桢 赅 蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 磬钺铕铗, 钺豚溧弪 镳桤磬赅扈 蝾泐, 黩 铐 怆弪 镳孱狃噻钼囗眍 桎遴朦眍 纛痨铋 镳怆屙 觐黻疱蝽铋 钺豚耱 趔礓囔屙蜞朦眍 蝈礓屙鲨 镱潢, 箴邈箅桊钼囗眍耱, 铕汔龛珙忄眄铖蜩. 罔痤觇 耧尻蝠, 镫嚯桤 囹梓羼觐泐 耦珥囗 铗 腓徨疣腓珈 漕 牮嚅龛 纛痨 蝾蜞腓蜞痂珈, 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 滂嚯尻蜩赍 镱潢, 祉钽铑狃噻棹 邈 镳怆屙栝 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 耵屦.

诣稃 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 蝈耥 忡噼祛溴轳蜮 忡噼祛怆 漯筱 磬 漯筱, 忪羼蝈 蝈 桁妣 疋铋 耦狁蜮屙睇 鲨觌 痂蜢 疣玮栩, 疋铊 "镨觇 嚓蜩忭铖蜩", 钺篑腩怆屙睇 耔耱屐铋 羿牝铕钼 沐钽疣翳麇耜桴, 铐铎梓羼觇, 镱腓蜩麇耜桴, 潴躅忭. 蒡囹梓羼觇 蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 镳邃忸聃棂噱, 镳钽眍玷痼弪, 钺钺弪 囡 铍梃 泐箐囵耱忄, 疣玮栩桢 妣 纛痨, 疱骅祛, 忭屮礤 镱腓蜩觇, 钺铖眍恹忄弪 礤钺躅滂祛耱 箨疱镫屙 泐耋溧瘃蜮 赅 羿牝铕 桧蝈沭圉梃 箫铕漕麇龛 钺耱忮眄铋 骅珥, 镥疱躅 邈 眍恹, 犷脲 翦牝桠睇 觐黻疱蝽铋 桉蝾痂麇耜铋 钺耱-

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .50

眍怅 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 纛痨囔. 蒡铗 蜩 铕桢眚桊钼囗, 鲥腩, 磬 镱珥囗桢 镱玷蜩忭 囫镥牝钼 镳桊钿 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 怆囫蜩, 桎梓羼觇 眍痨, 疱汨铐嚯 扈痤恹 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦, 蝈礓屙鲨. 理囵蹊麇耜栝 蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 疋玎 桧 耱铕铐囔 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 怆屙栝, 镳铞羼耦: 疱汨铐嚯 汶钺嚯 牮桤桉 蝈 桦 桧 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 纛痨, 桴 疣琊篪屙桢 忸珥桕眍忮龛 眍恹. 蒡铗 蜩 耦珥囗 镳彖祗耱忮眄 "恹疋鬻桠噱" 镳钽眍玷痼弪 忸珈铈睇 礤汔蜩忭 镱耠邃耱忤 蝈 桦 桧 耱铕铐, 纛痨, 戾蝾漕 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 溴蝈朦眍耱, 镳邃箫疱驿噱, 礤疱潢 戾蜞纛痂麇耜铋 纛痨, 牮桤桉 牮圊 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 玎忮瘌屙梃 耱噤栝, 囡钼 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍 铍梃. 悟颃溧 礤蝾驿羼蜮屙眍耱 痂蜢钼 铍梃 囹梓羼觐泐 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 蜩镱 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗. 蒡 礤 桉觌噱 忸珈铈眍耱 耦怙噤屙, 溴 耠篦噱, 镥痂钿钼 桴 嚓蜩忤玎鲨, 忡脲蝾 蜮铕麇耜铋 嚓蜩忭铖蜩 忸 怵屐 汶筢铌桴 耦鲨嚯-镱腓蜩麇耜桴 牮桤桉钼 桦 祛戾眚 钺泐 潴躅忭钽 镳钺箧溴龛.

诣稃 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 礤 疋钿蝰 桴 磬栳铍邋 琊咫 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 纛痨囔, 铐 珥圜栩咫 疱 桉蝾痂麇耜, 镱 疋铊 箴钼. 埋蝠鬻帼羼 桉蝾痂, 磬麒磬 汶筢铌铋 漯邂眍耱, 铗溴朦睇 桎彖, 耦玮篦睇 桎, 蝈铕 琊咫钽 蝈铕弪梓羼觐泐 囗囵蹊珈 XIX 磬鬣豚 XX 忖., 祛泱 猁螯 铗礤皴睇 溧眄铎 蜩矬 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 钿磬觐 礤朦 礤 铗戾蜩螯 桴 耋耱忮眄 疣珉梓栝 蝈铕弪梓羼觐 箴钼礤, 纛痨. 湾 疋钿栩 蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 桎孱腩汨, 镳钽疣祆囔, 漕牦戾眚囔 镱-疋铄祗 铕汔龛珙忄眄钽 囗囵蹊耱耜钽 溻桄屙, 铐 怆 腓 桎孱腩汨麇耜 觐眦屙蝠桊钼囗眍 鬣耱 钽 耦珥囗. 蠕彖 钽 蜩镟 耦珥囗 桁妣 躅驿屙桢 玎 镳邃咫囔 囗囵蹊耱耜钽 溻桄屙, 祛泱 耋耱忸忄螯 钺耱忮眄铎 耦珥囗梃 耠篦噱 疣耧噤 觐黻疱蝽钽 溻桄屙, 囗囵蹊麇耜桴 沭箫, 耦钼 . .

泥脲, 忸珥桕噱 忸镳铖 耋耱怏 腓 赅觇-龛狍潼 屐屙螓, "觇痫梓桕" 囹梓羼觐泐 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗栝? 西邂桎眍, 耋耱怏. 龛 祛骓 铗礤耱 铖眍忭 嚓耔铎 溧眄钽 蜩镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 踵疣牝屦睇 潆 礤泐 鲥眄铖蝽-铗眍眵羼觇 镱蜩, 钺疣琨, 耋驿屙, 耦耱噔桢 "觐耱" 漕牝痂睇 蜩镨黜 潆 溧 蝈铕栝 溧眄钽 蜩镟. 囗囵蹊珈 疋铊 囗蜩泐耋溧瘃蜮屙睇 "镥疴梓睇" 桎彖, 篑蜞眍怅, 镳桧鲨稃. 囹桤爨 疋铋 鲥眄铖蝽 桎彘睇 "趔礓囔屙". 皖 祛泱 腓  踵疣牝屦睇 蜩镱恹 桎彖, 镳桧鲨稃 猁螯 "怙脲蝈睇 蜿囗" 蝈铕梃

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .51

镳铗桠铒铍铈眍泐 蜩镟? 枢 镳噔桦, 钽 礤 镳铊聃钿栩 耧铌铋睇 桉蝾痂麇耜桢 镥痂钿, 觐沅 犷朦 忸珈铈眍耱彘 潆 镱耱屣屙眍泐 纛痨桊钼囗 犷脲 "麒耱" 蜩镱忸 铗眍龛 蝈铕栝, 蝈麇龛 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 禧耠. 令脲 蝾泐, 磬栳铍邋 镳桧鲨镨嚯 忸镳铖圊 磬腓鲱 礤耦忪羼蜩祛耱 桎彘 镳铗桠铒铍铈睇 蜩镱. 武磬觐 篑腩忤 狍痦 耦鲨嚯-镱腓蜩麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦, 汶筢铌桴 牮桤桉钼, 牮箫睇 觐眙腓牝钼 赅蜞耱痤, 铖蜞弪 戾睃 忸珈铈眍耱彘 潆 蜩镱忸 "麒耱铗" 蝈铕梃, 镳铊聃钿栩 犷脲 桧蝈眈桠睇 桎彘睇 镱桉, 耧屦桁屙蜩痤忄龛, 囡痤徉鲨 疣珉梓睇 眍恹 桎彘, 蝈铕栝, 钺戾 桁 ( 蝾 麒耠 耔塍 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 滂磬扈觇 镳铗桠铕鬻桠铖蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 镳铞羼耦, 疣珥铑狃噻 耢屮囗睇 镥疱躅漤 纛痨 铐铎梓羼觐, 耦鲨嚯铋 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 耵屦圊).

责嚆戾眚 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 祛泱 猁螯 "怙脲蝈睇" 耱痼牝箴睇 觐祜铐屙螓 桧钽 蜩镟 耦珥囗, 鬣耱眍耱, 疣珥钼桎眍耱 疱忸膻鲨铐眍泐 疣滂赅朦眍泐 囹桤爨, 觐眦屣鲨 疱忸膻鲨铐眍-溴祛牮囹梓羼觐泐 囹桤爨, 礤觐蝾瘥 漕牝痂睇 腓徨疣腓珈 ( 忸镳铖圊 牮栩桕 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍耱, 玎觐眍, 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 镳噔钼 桧耱栩篁钼, 镳钽眍玎 桴 狍潴泐 疣玮栩, 珥圜屙梃, 镳桎噔噱祛 耱桴栝睇, 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 溴祛牮囹梓羼觇 镱矬腓耱耜桁 桎, 纛痨囔 戾蝾溧 铖簌羼蜮脲龛 怆囫蜩, 桤戾礤龛 镳桁屙屙 玎觐眍溧蝈朦耱忄 . .). 亦, 屐屙螓 囗蜩泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍泐 疣琊篪栩咫钽 耦珥囗 桁咫桉 桎孱腩汨 犷朦忤珈 1917-1918 沣. ( 镱珂, 眍 耋耱忮眄 戾睃 觐腓麇耱忮). 褥咫桉 镱漕犴 屐屙螓 忸 忡汶溧 溧 蝈铕弪桕钼 矬犭桷桉蝾 疣滂赅朦眍-溴祛牮囹梓羼觐泐 磬镳噔脲龛 镥痂钿 疣耧噤 猁怿邈 蜒研.

蓦屐屙螓 囗囵蹊珈, 桧蝈沭桊钼囗睇 眍怏 潆 龛 耔耱屐, 镳桎帼 铋 耔耱屐 礤觐蝾瘥 漕徉忸黜 牮栩梓羼觇 囗囵蹊麇耜栝 桁矬朦 蝾 驽 怵屐, 桧铎 桎彘眍 镱腓蜩麇耜铎 觐眚尻耱 桡疣 箧 眍怏 痤朦. 玛膻麇龛 觐眦屣鲨 囹桤爨 礤觐蝾瘥 蜩镨黜 潆 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 桎彘 桁邋 溻铋耱忮眄铄 珥圜屙桢. 蒡 祛驽 镱祛鼽 钺眍怆屙棹 蝈铕梃, 邋 祛溴痦桤圉梃 耦鲨嚯铋 噤囡蜞鲨 篑腩忤 耦鲨嚯-镱腓蜩麇耜钽 牮桤桉, 礤耜铍 疣聒桊栩 耦鲨嚯簋 徉珞 桎孱腩汨 玎 聍弪 腓, 镳桢祀桴 犷脲 疱忸膻鲨铐桤桊钼囗眢 牮栩梓羼牦 蝈铕棹, 钺眍怆屙眢 桎孱腩汨麇耜簋 耔焘铍桕. 皖 祛泱 猁螯 镱耠邃耱忤 桧钽 踵疣牝屦 桎孱腩汨麇耜 滂趑箸, 耧铖钺磬 礤觐蝾痤 铗眍龛 溴珙痂屙蜩痤忄螯 耱噌桦桤桊簋 镳嚓蜩觐-镱腓蜩麇耜簋 磬镳噔脲眄铖螯 蝈-

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .52

痂, 铖豚徼螯 祛徼腓珞簋 耦鲨嚯簋 嚓蜩忭铖螯 痤朦 礤觐蝾瘥 觐眦屣鲨 囹桤爨 潆 疱龛 觐黻疱蝽 铐铎梓羼觇, 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 漯筱桴 镳嚓蜩麇耜桴 玎溧, 镳桎囹 蝈铕弪桕-镳桕豚漤铎 耠铪 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 礤觐蝾瘥 漕镱腠栩咫 篁铒梓羼觇 麇痱.

枢 猁 龛 赅玎豚顸 爨豚 痤朦 囗囵蹊珈 镱腓蜩麇耜铎 耦珥囗梃 铗溴朦睇 桉蝾痂麇耜桴 镥痂钿钼, 赅 猁 龛 箪屙嚯囫 邈 嚓蜩忭铖螯, 铗 镱膻 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 镳钿铍驵 耋耱忸忄螯 趔黻鲨铐桊钼囹. 亦赕 赅 礤 祛 桉麇珥篁 "泐耋溧瘃蜮屙龛麇耜栝" 蜩 耦珥囗 溧驽 铛 徉黻痤蝰蜮, 疣耧噤, 汨徨腓 爨臌 汨汔眚耜桴 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 忸 怵屐 扈痤恹 忸轫 . . "锐蝾痂 礤 珥噱 镥痂钿, 耧疣忮潆桠 镨 .. 锑祗, 觐蝾痤 怦 漕爨痍耔耱耜铄 耦珥囗桢 铌噻嚯铖 猁 磬 100% "泐耋溧瘃蜮屙龛麇耜桁" 桦 鲥腓觐 "囗蜩泐耋溧瘃蜮屙龛麇耜桁". 橡梓桧 蝾, 黩 溧眄 溻 蜩镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 礤 祛汶 耋耱忸忄螯 ( 觐眚尻耱 耦鲨铌箅箴 觌囫耦忸泐-囗蜞泐龛耱梓羼觐泐 钺耱忄) 钿桧 徨 漯筱钽. 项 腩汨赍 忮 铐 漕腈睇 猁腓 漕镱腠螯 漯筱 漯筱 漕镱腠腓"[2]. 蒡 驽 祛骓 觐眈蜞蜩痤忄螯 潆 犷脲 镱玟礤泐 镥痂钿 怛铕铋 镱腩忤睇 XIX-XX 忖. 橡梓屐 磬栳铍邋 琊咫 纛痨 钺 蜩镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 漕耱桡帼, 铖禧耠桠 镳梓桧, 铒 蝾蜞腓蜞痦 泐耋溧瘃蜮 扈痤恹 忸轫 XX . 吾 镱膻襦 桡疣腓 铒疱溴脲眄簋 痤朦 镱珥囗梃, 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 骅珥. 亦, 囗囵蹊珈, 赅 腓徨疣腓珈 疣礻圊 囹桤爨, 桁邋 痍 恹疣驽眄簋 囗蜩蝾蜞腓蜞痦簋 磬镳噔脲眄铖螯. 弱 镱溧怆屙桢 镳羼脲漕忄龛 耦玟噱 犷脲 犭嚆铒痂蝽簋 镱麾 潆 纛痨桊钼囗 蝾蜞腓蜞痦钽 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 疱骅爨 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋泐 耦珥囗. 湾漕铞屙赅 桡眍痂痤忄龛 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 蜩镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 桉蝾痂 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 禧耠 疋桎弪咫蜮箦, 钿眍 耱铕铐, 磬腓麒 礤觐蝾瘥 "徨臌 蝈" 桉耠邃钼囗梃 桉蝾痂 铒镱玷鲨铐眍 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 禧耠, 漯筱铋 耱铕铐, 礤牮栩梓羼觐 襦祛铞屙赍 铒疱溴脲眄 耱屦孱蜩镟 铘桷栲朦眍泐 "泐耋溧瘃蜮屙龛麇耜钽" 耦珥囗.

杨鲨嚯 铒囫睇扈 祛泱 猁螯 蝈礓屙鲨, 玎觌帼羼 囗囵蹊麇耜铎 耦珥囗梃 (桴 "牮嚅 蝾麝" 疣琊篪屙桢 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍耱), 囹梓羼觐 耦珥囗梃 (桴 镳嚓蜩觐-镱腓蜩麇耜栝 镳邃咫 牮嚅 纛痨 蝾蜞腓蜞痦钽 泐耋溧瘃蜮, 黩 礤 戾礤 铒囫眍 篑腩忤 耦躔囗屙 筱痤琨 扈痤忸 溴痦铋 忸轫, 麇 疣琊篪屙桢 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍耱). 皖 猁腩 猁 铠栳铟眍 礤漕铞屙桠囹 钺牝桠眢 痤朦 囹桤爨 囗囵蹊珈 戾踵龛珈 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 铍梃, 耦溴轳蜮梃

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .53

镥疱躅潴 钺耱忄 桉蝾痂麇耜 磬琊邂 耦耱龛 "镱潢" "踵铖" (赅 耱箫屙 眍忸祗 耦耱龛 镱潢). 吾耱忸 忸耱疱狍, 戾桴 镳铒铕鲨 纛痨圊 ( 疣珉梓睇 篑腩忤) 钺 蜩镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 囹桤, 囗囵蹊珈.

磬鬣腩 踵铖 镱潢 怙铍礤 耦汶囫簋蝰 蜞赕 耦鲨嚯 铖眍恹 蜩镱 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 铕汔龛玎鲨铐睇 纛痨 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 桁 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 溻桄屙栝 镱腓蜩麇耜铄 镱忮溴龛 桴 篦囫蝽桕钼.

篷腓 囹桤 铒桊噱蝰 磬 篑蝾轺桠 耦鲨嚯 觌囫覃, 耠铊, 沭箫稃 赅 眍耔蝈腓 蝈礓屙鲨 镱潢, 耱噌桦铖蜩, 蝾 耦鲨嚯 徉玎 囗囵蹊珈 忮顸爨 耧弼梏梓磬. 枢 镳噔桦,  钺耱忮眄 耠铊 镳铎彐篁铟睇, 礤篑蝾轺桠 镱腩驽龛屐. 蒡 恹蝈耥屐 磬 镥痂翦痂 耦鲨嚯-镱腓蜩麇耜铋 骅珥 疣珙桢 耠铊, 溴觌囫耔痤忄眄 桦 膻祜屙桤桊钼囗睇 沭箫稃 桧滂忤潲. 袜镳桁屦, 疣眄栝 溧铖桤 疏蜞 (VI-III 忖. 漕 . .), 觐蝾瘥 鲥腩 祛驽 猁螯 铗礤皴 溧眄铎 蜩矬 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 ( 镱镳噔觐 磬 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 铛 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 箴钼屙, 纛痨 恹疣驽龛 桎彘, 钺疣珙 . .), 猁 桎孱腩汨彘 疣珙痂怿桴 牮羼螯, 礤桁簌桴 耦鲨嚯 耠铄. 疏龛麇耜铄 耦珥囗桢 酿邂礤 灭弼梃, 镳铖簌羼蜮钼噔 赅 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 襦祛耱蝈朦眍 怆屙桢 螓麇脲蜩 ( V . 漕 . .), 镱矬痦铄 耩邃 耦鲨嚯 龛珙 漯邂礤沭鬻羼觐泐 扈疣, 蜩镱腩汨麇耜 痤漶蜮屙眍 漯邂礤觇蜞轳觐祗 溧铖桤祗 狍眚囵耜桁 桎 疣眄艴痂耱栲眈觇 皴牝[3], 囹痂狍蝾 桎孱腩汨 觐蝾瘥 蜞赕 -怆腓顸 牮栩桕 铗痂鲟龛 泐耋溧瘃蜮 玎觐眍 疣犷怆噤咫羼觐泐 耱痤 镳桢祀屐铋 桉蝾痂麇耜铋 纛痨. 如忮耱眍 磬腓麒 膻祜屙镳铍弪囵耜钽 屐屙蜞 疣眄艴痂耱栲眈觇 钺磬[4]. 杨鲨嚯簋 铒铕 耩邃礤忮觐恹 疱腓汨铉睇 皴牝囗蝰觇 溻桄屙栝, 礤觐蝾瘥 桎彘睇 蝈麇龛 镥痂钿 牮羼螯眈觇 忸耨蜞龛, 忸轫, 桁邂 麇痱 疋铋耱忮眄 "囗蜩泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍祗" 蜩矬 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 蜞赕 耦耱噔腓 钺龛怿桢, 铗鬣怿桢 耦鲨嚯 沭箫稃 ( 铖眍忭铎 牮羼螯, 蝾 麒耠 羿牝梓羼觇 溧驽 桎梓羼觇 犭桤觇 镱 疋铄祗 镱腩驽龛 疣徉).

杨鲨嚯铋 铖眍忸 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 琊咫钽, "疣耧嚓钼囗眍泐", 疣玮弪怆屙眍泐 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 XIX ., 耦汶囫眍 耱屦孱蜩矬, 漕脬铄 怵屐 耋耱忸忄怿屐 耦忮蝰觐 腓蝈疣蝮疱, 镳桤磬忄腓顸 桉觌栩咫 戾腙钺箴骟噻睇 耠铊. 武磬觐  踵疣牝屦桉蜩赅, 溴轳蜮栩咫 翳犟桊簋 忄骓 祛戾眚钼, 礤 钺耥豚 珥圜栩咫 膻祜屙镳'铍弪囵耜栝 觐祜铐屙 囗囵蹊珈, 磬腓麒 溧 漯筱桴 沭箫, 耜腩眄

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .54

囗囵蹊珈 耩邃 疣犷麒, 牮羼螯, 桧蝈腚桡屙鲨, 耱箐屙麇耱忄, 忮顸爨 篑腩忭 铗眍耔禧 戾腙钺箴骟噻睇 耠. 体腙 狍疰筻玷, 耔塍 邋 镳铎彐篁铟眍泐 镳铗桠铕鬻桠钽 镱腩驽龛 戾驿 狍疰筻玷彘 疣犷麒 觌囫耦, 溴轳蜮栩咫 忮顸爨 镱溻屦驽磬 囗囵蹊珈 (躅 鬣耱 邋 耔祜囹桤桊箦 蝾蜞腓蜞痂珈). 武磬觐 羿牝 疋桎弪咫蜮簋, 黩 觐黻疱蝽-桉蝾痂麇耜 铖眍忄 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 蜩镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 疱 祉钽铑狃噻礤. 雾 耋耱忸忄豚 桁咫 疣珉梓睇 纛痨 漕 镱怆屙 耦狁蜮屙眍 狍疰筻玷 ( 戾腙铋 狍疰筻玷 蝾 麒耠). "皖耔蝈扈" 钽 蜩镟 耦珥囗 猁腓 镳彖祗耱忮眄 忮顸爨 礤篑蝾轺桠 耦鲨嚯铎 铗眍龛 耠铊, 沭箫稃. 填骓 镳桤磬螯, 黩 戾腙 狍疰筻玷 怆弪 忄骓铋 耦耱噔眍 鬣耱 耦鲨嚯铋 铖眍恹 囗囵蹊珈 镥痂钿 镱怆屙 邈 疣玮栩铋 蝈铕弪梓羼觐 纛痨 (XIXXX 忖.). 鲥腩 驽 邈 耦鲨嚯铋 铖眍忸 猁豚 耦忸牦镯铖螯 钺耱忮眄 耠铄, 沭箫 恹耦觐 耱屣屙 耦鲨嚯铋 礤篑蝾轺桠铖蜩: 珥圜栩咫 鬣耱 戾腙铋 狍疰筻玷, 膻祜屙-镳铍弪囵栲蜞, 溴觌囫耔痤忄眄 屐屙蝾, 蝾 麒耠 桤 镳桠桦邈桊钼囗睇 耦耠钼栝, 沭箫, 鬣耱 疣犷麇泐 觌囫襦, 疣珙邈铖 牮羼螯眈蜮, 桧蝈腚桡屙鲨, 耱箐屙麇耱忄 . .[5].

碾 "爨痍桊钼觇" 耦鲨嚯铋 镱麾 牮嚅礤泐 疱忸膻鲨铐桤爨 囗囵蹊珈 镳邃耱噔弪 桧蝈疱 恹疣犷蜞眄铄 耦鲨铍钽梃 痤觐 镳桁屙屐铄 磬耱 怵屐 镱蜩 "爨疸桧嚯铖蜩". 麇痱囔 爨疸桧嚯铋 腓黜铖蜩 耦怵屐屙眍 耦鲨铍钽梃 铗眍 礤噤囡蜩忭铖螯 忸 祉钽桴 铗眍龛 耦鲨嚯铋 骅珥, 礤怅膻麇眄铖螯 耋耱怏簋 脲汔朦眢 箫铕漕麇眄簋 耔耱屐 铗眍龛, 磬腓麒 铒疱溴脲眄钽 耦鲨嚯-锺桴铍钽梓羼觐泐 滂耜铎纛痱, 耧铖钺眍泐 镳怆螯 礤铈桎囗睇 纛痨圊 镟耨桠眍泐 嚓蜩忭钽 镱忮溴龛[6]. 锑疸桧嚯 耠铊, 镱耱噔脲眄 磬 沭囗 铗鬣龛 徨珥噤彐眍耱, 铒疱溴脲眄 篑腩忤 铌噻帼蝰 眍耔蝈扈 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗. 锣骓 铗戾蜩螯, 黩 耦怵屐屙眍 钺耱忮 麇痱囔 爨疸桧嚯铖蜩 铗眍蝰 铗黧驿屙眍耱 铗 耔耱屐 镱蝠遽脲龛, 耦鲨嚯-锺桴铍钽梓羼赅 礤箐钼脲蜮铕屙眍耱 疋铊 镱腩驽龛屐, 礤 怦邈溧 镳祛 镳铒铕鲨铐嚯 礤珥圜栩咫铖蜩 漕躅漕 箴钼睨 爨蝈痂嚯铋 礤钺羼镥麇眄铖蜩. 锑疸桧嚯 礤 钺玎蝈朦眍 镳邃耱噔栩咫 "龛珙", 羼螯 耩邃 龛 恹躅漩 桤 耩邃龛 耦鲨嚯 耠铄 溧驽 桤 栩[7]. 武龛 桤 羿牝铕钼 爨疸桧嚯桤圉梃 怆弪 蝠箐眍耱 噤囡蜞鲨 潆 铗溴朦睇 钺耱忮眄 耠铄, 镳铘羼耔铐嚯 沭箫 耦怵屐屙眍祗 箴钼睨 疣玮栩 蝈蹴梓羼觐 鲨忤腓玎鲨.

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .55

武磬觐 钿眍 踵疣牝屦桉蜩觇 耦鲨嚯铋 铖眍恹 囗囵蹊珈 赅 "爨疸桧嚯 耠铄" 蜞赕 礤漕耱囹铟眍, 镱耜铍  耠铊 怆 铖眍忸 潆 箅疣疣滂赅朦眍 桎孱腩汨 鲥腩 ( 蝾 麒耠 囹梓羼觐泐 蜩镟). 袜栳铍邋 钺 麇痱铋 耦鲨嚯铋 徉琨 囗囵蹊珈 怆弪 桁屙眍 恹耦觇 箴钼屙 耦鲨嚯铋 礤篑蝾轺桠铖蜩, 耦耱噔桴  徉珞 耠铄, 沭箫, 腓黜铖蝈. 龛 铗眍蝰 爨疸桧嚯 沭箫稃, 溴觌囫耔痤忄眄 屐屙螓, 镳铎彐篁铟睇 耠铊 戾驿 铗眍耔蝈朦眍 篑蝾轺桠, 眍 镳铗桠铒铍铈睇扈 觌囫襦扈, 沭箫镟扈, 膻祜屙桤桊钼囗睇 耠铊. 蒡 耦鲨嚯 钺疣珙忄龛 祛泱 耠箧栩 铖眍忸 桧 疣滂赅朦睇 溻桄屙栝, 纛痨- 耦珥囗 (磬镳桁屦, 疣珉梓睇 蝾蜞腓蜞痦 纛痨 耦珥囗 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 溻桄屙栝). 溧眄铎 耠篦噱 忄骓 镳孱犭噤帼 蝈礓屙鲨 磬镳噔脲眄铖蜩 桤戾礤龛 礤篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 耦鲨嚯铎 镱腩驽龛 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 彘 篑蜞眍怅 耦珥囗梃. 填骓 恹耜噻囹 耠邃簋 汨镱蝈珞: 镳孱犭噤帼 蝈礓屙鲨 磬疣耱囗梃 耦鲨嚯铋 礤篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 铗耋蝰蜮桢 忤滂祛 镥瘃镥牝桠 耱噌桦铖蜩 疣礻圊 溧眄铋 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 镳噔钼铋 耔耱屐, 耧铖钺耱怏 纛痨桊钼囗棹 溴耱痼牝桠睇, 溴玷眚邈疣鲨铐睇 篑蜞眍忸 耦珥囗梃. 杨鲨嚯 沭箫稃 蜞觇 磬镳噔脲龛屐 铍梃 耦鲨嚯铋 礤篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 耜腩眄 囗囵蹊珈. 橡铗桠铒铍铈眍 磬镳噔脲龛 疣玮栩 耦鲨嚯铋 礤篑蝾轺桠铖蜩 忤滂爨 忸珈铈眍耱 铒疱溴脲眄铋 耱噌桦桤圉梃 箅篦龛 爨蝈痂嚯钽 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 镱腩驽龛 镳 篑腩忤 耱噌桦桤圉梃 箫铕漕麇龛 镱腓蜩觐-镳噔钼铋 耔耱屐 耧铖钺耱怏 纛痨桊钼囗棹 篑蜞眍怅 磬 铒疣怃囗眍耱 犷脲 驽耱觇 纛痨 磬忮溴龛 铈桎噱祛泐 驽豚屐钽 镱潢, 磬 耔朦眢 怆囫螯, 噔蝾痂蜞痦 蝾蜞腓蜞痦 疱骅.

诣镟 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗, 桴 铕桢眚圉梃 磬 踵铖 镱漕, 铖眍忭铎, 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 疋玎眄 龛扈 纛痨 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 镟痱栝, 溻桄屙栝. 蒡囹梓羼觇 蜩 耦珥囗 觐痧咫桊箦 镱腓蜩麇耜桁 镟痱, 溻桄屙, 耦囔 犷脲 驽耱觐 忭篁疱眄彘 铕汔龛玎鲨彘 (镱 牮嚅礤 戾疱 鲨觌梓羼觇 箨疱镫彘 耔眭痤眄 镟痣囔屙蝰觇 恹犷疣) , 赅 镳噔桦, 疣睃 桦 镱珂 桧耱栩筻腓玷痼桁 镱腓蜩麇耜桢 镟痱梃, 耱疱羼 玎踱囹栩 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眢 怆囫螯 铖簌羼蜮栩 铒疱溴脲眄铄 "箫铕漕麇龛" 钺耱忮眄 铗眍龛 耦铗忮蝰蜮梃 桧蝈疱襦扈 镳邃耱噔屐 耦鲨嚯 沭箫, 觌囫耦. 理囵蹊麇耜栝 蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 铕汔龛玎鲨铐眍 镫囗 镳彖祗耱忮眄 疋玎 蜞觐 纛痨铋 赅 镱腓蜩麇耜铄 溻桄屙桢, 礤 耱疱羼 玎踱囹 怆囫蜩, 恹耱箫帼 磬 镳嚓蜩赍 赅 羿牝铕 牮栩桕, 铒镱-

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .56

玷鲨, 溴耱噌桦桤圉梃, 溴玷眚邈疣鲨 泐耋溧瘃蜮屙眍-铕汔龛珙忄眄铎 钺耱忮. 翌 羼螯, "踵铗梓羼赅" 镳桊钿 囗囵蹊珈 蝈铕梃, 铕汔龛玎鲨铐眍 铗眍龛 磬躅滂 怙铍礤 噤尻忄蝽铄 恹疣驽龛.

项稃蜿 耦玟囹 囗囵蹊耱耜簋 镟痱棹 礤 疣 镳邃镳桧桁噔羼, 蝾 麒耠 蓄耨梃, 猁怿屐 蜒研, 磬镳桁屦 1917-1920- 沣., 礤 桁咫 篑镥踵. 勿汔龛玎鲨铐睇 纛痨 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 溻桄屙 黧驿 驽耱觐 滂聆栾腓礤 镳 铗耋蝰蜮梃 桧滂忤潴嚯钽 耦汶囫 蝈 桦 桧 疱龛屐, 鲥眚疣腓珙忄眄铎 痼觐忸漶蜮 驽耱觐 钺玎蝈朦眍耱 疱龛 "痼觐忸", 镳邃耱噔栩咫 铕汔眍 (聱彗漕, 觐眙屦屙鲨, 觐扈蝈蝾, 鲥眚痤 . .) 潆 "龛驽耱" 忮痱桕嚯铎 铗眍龛 耱痼牝箴 (翦溴疣鲨, 觐眙屦屙鲨, 囫耦鲨圉栝, 耦钼, 沭箫, 铗溴朦睇 麟屙钼 . .). 杨玟囗桢 镟痱梃 篦囫蜩屐 囗囵蹊耱钼 祛驽 猁螯 铖簌羼蜮脲眍, 忤滂祛, 腓 磬 赅觐-蝾 耢屮囗眍 囹桉蝰觐-囗囵蹊耱耜铋 铖眍忮 ( 蝈礓屙鲨 鬣 怦邈 镳怆弪 囗囵躅-耔礓桕嚯桉蝰觐 溻桄屙梃, 铕桢眚桊簋祚 磬 铕汔龛珙忄眄铄 疣犷麇 溻桄屙桢). 武磬觐, 羼腓 蝈铕弪梓羼觇 祛骓 漕矬耱栩 蜞觐 忄痂囗 镱 溧怆屙桢 镳铗桠铕鬻桠 羿牝铕钼, 钺耱蝈朦耱, 赅 疱珞朦蜞 觐祜痤扈耨, 滂牝箦祛泐 觐黻疱蝽 镱腓蜩麇耜桁 耦钺疣驽龛扈, 蝾 祛骓 镳邃耜噻囹 牮囹觐怵屐屙眍耱 镥疱躅漤 踵疣牝屦 镱漕犴铋 铕汔龛玎鲨.

磬鬣豚扈 "踵铖" "镱潢" 疋玎眍 镱忮溴龛 疣珉梓睇 耋狷尻蝾 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 铗眍龛. 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 锺桴铍钽梃 疣珉梓帼蝰 眍痨 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 镱忮溴龛 镳 耱噌桦 礤耱噌桦 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 耔耱屐. 羊噌桦 镱腓蜩麇耜 耔耱屐 "眢驿噱蝰 疋铊 嚓蜩忤耱圊 腓 磬 铒疱溴脲眄, 漕耱囹铟眍 牮囹觐怵屐屙睇 镱忸痤蜞 桤徼疣蝈朦眍泐 爨躅忤赅... 铛 驽 牮桤桉钼 怦 镱腓蜩麇耜桢 镟痱梃 铕汔龛玎鲨 蝠遽簋 犷朦 耱屣屙 怅膻麇眄铖蜩 腩朦眍耱". 碾 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 溻桄屙 钺彖 耔蝮圉 踵疣牝屦眍 礤铕滂磬痦铄 镱忮溴龛. 扬尻蝠 蜞觐泐 礤铕滂磬痦钽 镱忮溴龛 祛驽 猁螯 忮顸爨 痤: 铗 赅祜囗栝 沭噫溧眈觐泐 礤镱忤眍忮龛 (汔礓桉蝰觐泐 蜩镟) 礤篦囫蜩 "忸 珉" (蝾腭蝾怦觐泐 蜩镟) 漕 嚓蜩忭钽 磬耔朦耱忮眄钽 耦镳铗桠脲龛, 蝈痧铕桉蜩麇耜桴 嚓蝾 忸铕箧屙眍 "镟痱桤囗耜铋 忸轫" (磬镳桁屦, 镱 蜩矬 "署囫睇 狃桡噤" 闰嚯梃). 武磬觐, 膻犷 纛痨 囡铍栩梓羼觐泐 犷殛铗, 徨玟彘耱忤 桦 嚓蜩忭 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 嚓鲨, 囗囵蹊珈 恹耱箫噱 赅 镳怆屙桢 磬鬣豚 "踵铖" 镱 铗眍龛 耋耱怏屐 "镱潢".

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .57

镥痂钿 疱忸膻鲨铐睇 牮桤桉钼 桧蝈眈桠眍耱 蜞觐泐 镱忮溴龛 囗囵蹊麇耜桴 沭箫, 踵铗桤桊簋泐 耔耱屐, 溴耱噌桦桤桊簋泐 镱漕, "疣耜圜桠帼泐" 钺耱忮眄铄 耦珥囗桢, 疱珀 忸琊囫蜞弪. 骂 怵屐 牦朦扈磬鲨 疱忸膻鲨铐眍泐 疣琊篪屙 镱忮溴龛 囗囵蹊耱钼 忸 祉钽铎 "耠桠噱蝰" 耦 耱桴栝睇扈 囗囵蹊麇耜桁 蝈礓屙鲨扈 镱忮溴龛 疱忸膻鲨铐睇 爨耨. 骂珥桕帼 镳 铎 疋铄泐 痤溧 "踵铗梓羼觇 疱珙磬眈" 篑桦桠噱 桧蝈眈桠眍耱 镳铒嚆囗滂耱耜铋 镳嚓蜩赍-镱腓蜩麇耜铋 溴蝈朦眍耱 囗囵蹊珈. 蒡, 疋铪 铟屦邃, 耱桁箅桊箦 爨耨钼 溴轳蜮, 嚓鲨 耦溴轳蜮簋 疣琊篪屙棹 镳彐礤 耦鲨嚯-镱腓蜩麇耜铋 耔耱屐. 桴 篑腩忤 镳铊聃钿栩 礤觐蝾疣 桧蝈沭圉 屐屙蝾 耔耱屐 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 (镳彐溴 怦邈 邈 牮栩梓羼觐 镳钽疣祆) 桎孱腩汨 痤觐泐 铖忸犷滂蝈朦眍泐 疱忸膻鲨铐眍泐 溻桄屙栝. 项耠 铟屦邃眍 耱噌桦桤圉梃 耔耱屐 磬麒磬弪 "铗腓" "踵铗梓羼觐泐 耦珥囗" 镳铊聃钿栩 镱耱屣屙眍 "恹禧忄龛", "翳朦蝠圉" 桴 桎彘, 麴嚆戾眚钼 觐眦屣鲨 桤 铘桷栲朦眍 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 桎孱腩汨 鬣耱梓眍 耦躔囗屙桢 桴 耵屦 牮栩桕 漕疱忸膻鲨铐眍 耔耱屐. 犷朦 戾疱 屐屙螓 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 祛泱 耦躔囗栩 桎孱腩汨 溻桄屙栝, 镟痱栝, 铖蜞怿桴 铒镱玷鲨 犷脲 潆栩咫铄 怵屐 耦躔囗桴 牮栩梓羼觇 镱蝈眦栲 疱忸膻鲨铐眍 铛.

妁 钿眍 玎戾鬣龛. 理囵蹊麇耜栝 蜩 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 忮顸爨 犭桤铌 漯筱桁 "痤漶蜮屙睇" 怆屙, 蜞赕 镳咫铎脲眄 恹疣驵桁 磬鬣豚 "踵铖" 眍黻铐纛痨桤爨 钺豚耱 牦朦蝮瘥, 耦珥囗 鲥腩. 龛 铗眍蝰, 磬镳桁屦, 噔囗汔痄桉蝰觇 蝈麇龛 腓蝈疣蝮疱 桉牦耨蜮 觐眦 XIX楉圜嚯 XX 忖.[8] 骅忸镨耔 (磬镳桁屦, 珥圜栩咫 鬣耱 蜮铕麇耱忄 躞漕骓桕钼-桁镳羼耔铐桉蝾 镱耱桁镳羼耔铐桉蝾, 噌耱疣牿桀龛耱钼, 觐耢桉蝾 漯.), 祗琨赍 (磬镳桁屦, 蝈麇龛 "礤箫疣怆屐铋 祗琨觇", 蜮铕麇耱忸 溧 噔囗汔痄睇 痤-沭箫 . .), 囵蹊蝈牝箴 (疣琊篪屙桢 镳彐礤泐 "镱潢" 铋 耵屦 忤腓顸, 疋铄 怵屐, 磬镳噔脲龛 "觐眈蝠箨蜩忤珈", "趔黻鲨铐嚯桤爨" . .), 耜箅蝮疱 (牦徼珈, 觐眈蝠箨蜩忤珈, 噌耱疣牿桀龛珈 . .), 镱梃 (耔焘铍桤, 趔蝮痂珈, 徼铌铖扈珈 漯筱桢), 镳铉 (磬篦磬 羿眚囫蜩赅, 驵眇 囗蜩篁铒梃 . .), 蝈囹疣朦睇 镱耱囗钼赅 (蝈囹瘥 噌耋痄, 篑腩忭-耔焘铍梓羼觐泐 磬镳噔脲龛 . .), 翳腩耦翳 (翦眍戾眍腩汨, 桧蝮栩桠桤, "桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜栝 囗囵蹊珈", "忮痤蝽铖蝽 铕桢眚桊钼囗磬 翳腩耦翳" . .) . . 诣镱腩汨麇耜铄 痤漶蜮 囗囵蹊珈 耦 祉钽桁 桤 桴 "狍眚囵耜桴", "踵铗梓羼觇" 磬镳噔脲龛 蜮铕麇耱忄, 疣琊-

愉囵鲥 . . 项腓蜩麇耜 镳噔钼 蝈铕 囗囵蹊珈 蓄耨梃 - ., 灶痼-, 1994. - .58

桴 "沭囗桷 漕玮铍屙眍泐", 镳怆腩顸, 镱痤 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄铎 桴 邃桧耱忮, 犭桤铖蜩 囗囵蹊珈 溧 桴 镳邃耱噔栩咫彘.

畜耨觇 噔囗汔痄 腓蝈疣蝮疱 桉牦耨蜮 1910-1920- 沣., 怆栝 箜桕嚯 桉蝾痂麇耜桁 翦眍戾眍, 猁怿栝, 镱 耧疣忮潆桠铎 镳桤磬龛 桉耠邃钼囹咫 桤 孕 . 灭铋襦, "钿龛 桤 襦禧 疣滂赅朦睇 邂痤镥轳觇 牦朦蝮痦 溻桄屙栝"[9], 镱 疋铄祗 扈痤铢簌屙棹 猁 犭桤铌 镱耱觌囫耔麇耜铎 囗囵蹊珈, 脲忸祗 疱忸膻鲨铐囵桤祗 鲥腩. 玉蜞眍怅 噔囗汔痄 磬 蝈蜩牦 疣琊篪屙, 踵铖, 磬 "囗龛汨鲨" 蝠噤桷栝, 赅眍眍, 耱疱祀屙桢 爨犟桁嚯铋 疣耜钼囗眍耱 躞漕驽耱忮眄 纛痨 桴 眍忤珥 赅 镳怆屙, 耔焘铍囔 铖忸犷驿屙 麇腩忮赅 镳孱狃噻钼囗 扈疣, 邈 镱瘥 "蝾蜞朦眍祗 觐耢梓羼觐祗 钺眍怆屙棹 扈疣" . . 猁腓 耦玮篦睇 桎 囗囵蹊珈, 铖钺屙眍 邈 镱耱觌囫耔麇耜桁 纛痨囔.

亦觇 钺疣珙, 桁妣蝰 祉钽铑狃噻睇 疋玷 蜩镱 镱腓蜩麇耜钽 耦珥囗 磬鬣豚扈, 耦耱龛扈 "踵铖" "镱潢" 钺耱忮 赅 襦祛铕汔龛珞彘 耔耱屐. 悟眍龛 泐耋溧瘃蜮 礤觐蝾瘥 漯筱桁 镱腓蜩麇耜桁 桎梓羼觇 桧耱栩篁囔 恹耱箫噱 赅 觐黻疱蝽铄 铖眍忄龛, 鲥眄铖蝽 屐屙 "疣玮邃屙", "疣耧疱溴脲龛" 桎彘, 觐眦屣鲨, 漕牝痂 镱腓蜩麇耜铎 耦珥囗梃 镱 桴 疋, 觐礤黜铎 聍弪, 怆屙扈 "踵铖" "镱潢". 蔓怆屙桢 疋玷 翦眍戾磬 囗囵蹊珈 钺 磬鬣腩 "踵铖" 疣耨祛蝠屙桢 邈 赅 屐屙蜞, 纛痨 恹疣驽龛, 镳怆屙 "踵铖" 襦祛铕汔龛玎鲨 钺耱忮眄铎 耦珥囗梃 ( 蝾 麒耠 镱腓蜩麇耜铎 镳噔钼铎), 镱玮铍弪 筲桎弪 眍恹, 犷脲 汶筢铌栝 镱漕 耋铖蜩 溧眄钽 怆屙, 邈 疋玷 痤觇 牮筱铎 怆屙栝 疣珉梓睇 钺豚耱 骅珥, 塍鼬 镱螯 铍棹 桉蝾痂麇耜桢 鲨觌 邈 嚓蜩忭铖蜩.

橡邃簌栝 | 毋豚怆屙桢 | 央邃簋



[1] 鸯., 磬镳.: 仳囔祀屦 . 理囵蹊珈. 义铕 牮栩桕. 严., 1906. . 4, 5.

[2] 锑祗 .. 仃嚯 铞屙铌 泐耋溧瘃蜮 镳铞羼 邈 铞屙觇 // 杨忮蝰赅 囫耦鲨圉 镱腓蜩麇耜桴 磬箨. 沛邈钿龛 1988. 锐蝾痂 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 禧耠 耦怵屐屙眍耱. ., 1988. . 43.

[3] 鸯.: 袜躅 .. 疏龛麇耜 腓蝈疣蝮疣. ., 1981. . 5-9.

[4] 鸯., 磬镳.: 枢篁耜栝 . 橡铊聃铈溴龛 躔桉蜩囗耱忄. ., 1990. . 303.

[5] 央铈眍耱 耦鲨嚯铋 铖眍恹 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 耦珥囗 镱潋忮疰溧弪 溧眄 .. 署桠屙钽 耦耱噔 囗囵蹊麇耜钽 溻桄屙 蓄耨梃 1905-1907 沣. 磬 铖眍忮 耔耱屐囹桤圉梃 疋邃屙栝 400 篦囫蝽桕圊 18-蜩 囗囵蹊麇耜桴 铕汔龛玎鲨 皴扈 疱汨铐钼. 鸯.: 署桠屙栝 .. 理囵蹊耱 疱忸膻鲨 1905-1907 泐漕. 滥嗜. ., 1990. . 25.

[6] 鸯.: 项觐 .. 锑疸桧嚯 腓黜铖螯. 觏.: 杨怵屐屙磬 玎镟漤 耦鲨铍钽. 央钼囵. ., 1990. . 175. 蜀蜞蜩, 礤觐蝾瘥 沭箫稃 耦怵屐屙睇 囗囵蹊耱钼 蓄耨梃 (磬镳桁屦, 燕黻-襄蝈疳箴沐) 磬琨忄 皴 囗囵躅-爨疸桧嚯囔. 鸯.: 皖恹 疋弪. 翔蝈瘃赅 囗囵蹊麇耜 汔珏蜞. 锑疸桧嚯-囗囵蹊麇耜桢 觐眚-桧桷栲蜩恹. N*2 (20). 里疱朦 1992. . 1, 2.

[7] 妈蟒 .., 蒴桊钼 .. "隋恹" 蝈痧铕桤 磬 青镟溴: 桉蝾痂 耦怵屐屙眍耱. ., 1987. . 245-246. 32 劐耱铒嚯 .. 西屦觇 镱腓蜩麇耜铋 锺桴铍钽梃. 蔓. VI. ., 1990. . 28.

[8] 袜 铒疱溴脲眄簋 疋琰 桎彘 囗囵蹊珈 礤觐蝾瘥扈 蝈麇龛扈 桉牦耨蜮 XX . 耧疣忮潆桠 钺疣蜩 忭桁囗桢 疋铄 漕牝铕耜铋 滂耨屦蜞鲨 . 洛皴腩. 鸯.: Weseloh E. Anarchismus. Eine Bewu/Stseinschaltung. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophischen Fakult鋞 der Westf鋖ischen Wilhelms-Universit鋞 zu M黱ster. 1968. S. 6-7.

[9] 灭铋 . 畜耨觇 噔囗汔痄 镱 钺 耱铕铐 "麇痦钽 赈噤疣蜞" // 骂镳铖 翳腩耦翳, 1990, 11. . 67.










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